They are combs. They were made by arranging wooden teeth in a row, binding each with thread, and reinforcing them with lacquer while occasionally filling the spaces with wood dust and then adding decoration. The techniques used to make combs are the same, whether in Hokkaido or Kanto.
For the hairstyle of No. 3 (right, p. 73), it seems that a fastener, such as a comb or a decorative hairpin (kogai) were used to pin up the hair.